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Milk Thistle/Silybum marianum   

Research & Studies 

Milk Thistle/Silybum marianum

There are 69 good studies at Milk Thistle/Silybum M. Here's a selection:
Abstracts with Milk Thistle Research

Silymarin (from milk thistle) is well-tolerated and improves the condition of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.
Abstract Title:
Effects of silymarin MZ-80 on oxidative stress in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study.
Abstract Source:
Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Dec;28(12):2211-5. PMID: 11841050
Abstract Author(s):
M I Lucena, R J Andrade, J P de la Cruz, M Rodriguez-Mendizabal, E Blanco, F Sánchez de la Cuesta
BACKGROUND: The role of silymarin in the treatment of liver cirrhosis is controversial. AIM: Clinical outcome,biochemical profile and the antiperoxidative effects of silymarin MZ-80 during 6 months treatment were investigated in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Sixty consecutive patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis were randomized to receive either silymarin MZ-80 (S) (150 mg t.i.d. per day) or placebo (P) for periods of 6 months. Erythrocyte total glutathione (GSH) content, platelet malondialdehyde (MDA) and serum amino-terminal propeptide of procollagen Type III (PIIINP) were determined at baseline and at the end of treatment. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients completed the study (24 S and 25 P). The 2 groups were well-matched for demographic as well as baseline clinical and laboratory parameters. Silymarin increased total GSH at 6 months (4.5 +/- 3.4 to 5.8 +/- 4.0 micromol/g Hb) whereas, in the placebo group, GSH remained unchanged (4.1 +/- 3.9 to 4.4 +/- 4.1 micromol/gHb) (p < 0.001), and platelet-derived non-induced MDA decreased by 33% (p < 0.015). A parallel decrease in PIIINP values was seen with silymarin (1.82 1.03 to 1.36 +/- 0.5 U/ml, p < 0.033) but not with placebo (1.31 +/- 0.4 to 1.27 +/- 0.6 U/ml). There were no concurrent changes on laboratory indices of the pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Silymarin is well-tolerated and produces a small increase in glutathione and a decrease in lipid peroxidation in peripheral blood cells in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Despite these effects no changes in routine liver tests were observed during the course of therapy.
Article Published Date : Dec 01, 2005
Study Type : Human Study
Additional Links
Substances : Milk Thistle : CK(284) : AC(66)
Diseases : Liver Cirrhosis: Alcoholic : CK(33) : AC(5)

Silibinin has radioprotective properties.
Abstract Title:
Radioprotection of plasmid and cellular DNA and Swiss mice by silibinin.
Abstract Source:
Mutat Res. 2010 Jan;695(1-2):55-60. Epub 2009 Nov 27. PMID: 19945544
Abstract Author(s):
Prabha Tiwari, Amit Kumar, Manjoor Ali, K P Mishra
Article Affiliation:
Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India.
The radioprotective effect of a non-toxic bioactive component in plant milk thistle, silibinin against genotoxicity induced by gamma-irradiation was investigated in vivo/in vitro. Under in vitro conditions of irradiation, silibinin protected plasmid pBR322 DNA against gamma-radiation-induced strand breaks in a concentration dependent manner (0-200microM). Under cellular conditions of radiation exposure (3Gy), silibinin offered protection to lymphocyte DNA as evidenced from reduction in DNA damage and micronuclei formation, which showed correlation to the extent of intracellular reactive oxygen species reduction. Our extended animal studies suggest that oral administration of silibinin (70mg/kg for 3 days) to mice prior to whole-body gamma-exposure (7.5Gy) resulted in significant protection to radiation-induced mortality and DNA damage in blood leukocytes. However, silibinin treatment after irradiation was not as effective as pre-administration. In conclusion, present study indicated that silibinin has a strong potential to prevent radiation-induced DNA damage under both in vitro and in vivo.
Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2010
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Substances : Milk Thistle : CK(284) : AC(66), Silibinin : CK(135) : AC(70)
Diseases : DNA damage : CK(1017) : AC(387), Radiation Induced Illness : CK(1048) : AC(265)
Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants : CK(8430) : AC(3132), Radioprotective : CK(858) : AC(293)

Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale extracts had a protective effect against oxidative kidney injuries induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats.
Abstract Title:
Protective effect of Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale extracts against oxidative kidney injuries induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats.
Abstract Source:
Ren Fail. 2016 Nov 15:1-6. Epub 2016 Nov 15. PMID: 27845613
Abstract Author(s):
Ali Karakuş, Yeter Değer, Serkan Yıldırım
Article Affiliation:
Ali Karakuş
The protective effect of the extracts of the plants Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was researched. Sixty-six female Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups: Control, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, CCl4, Silybum marianum+ CCl4, Taraxacum officinale+CCl4. The Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale extracts were administered as 100 mg/kg/day by gavage. The CCl4 was administered as 1.5 mL/kg (i.p.). At the end of the trial period, in the serums obtained from the animals, in the CCl4 group it was found that theMDA level increased in the kidney tissue samples as well as in the ALP and GGT enzyme activities. It was also found that the GSH level and the GST enzyme activities decreased (p<.05). The microscopic evaluations showed that the CCl4 caused a serious hydropic degeneration, coagulation necrosis, and mono-nuclear cell infiltration in the kidney cell. In the animals where CCl4 and Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale extracts were applied together, it was found that the serum ALP and GGT enzyme activities decreased and that the MDA level decreased in the kidney tissue, and that the GSH level and GST enzyme activities increased. It was observed that the histopathological changes caused by the CCl4 toxicity were corrected by applying the extracts. Eventually, it was determined that the Silybum marianum was more effective. Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale extracts which were used against histopathological changes in the kidney caused by toxication showed a corrective effect, which were supported by biochemical parameters.
Article Published Date : Nov 14, 2016
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Substances : Dandelion : CK(138) : AC(61), Milk Thistle : CK(284) : AC(66)
Diseases : Kidney Damage: Chemically-Induced : CK(25) : AC(13), Oxidative Stress : CK(3871) : AC(1382)
Pharmacological Actions : Enzyme Inhibitors : CK(473) : AC(251), Malondialdehyde Down-regulation : CK(554) : AC(152), Renoprotective : CK(572) : AC(254)
Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts : CK(7645) : AC(2539)

These results suggest that geraniol plays a significant role during liver regeneration.
Abstract Title:
The Effect of Geraniol on Liver Regeneration After Hepatectomy in Rats.
Abstract Source:
In Vivo. 2017 Mar-Apr;31(2):209-213. PMID: 28358702
Abstract Author(s):
Mediha Canbek, Mustafa Uyanoglu, Selcuk Canbek, Emre Ceyhan, Ahmet Ozen, Basak Durmus, Ozge Turgak
Article Affiliation:
Mediha Canbek
Geraniol is a monoterpenoid alcohol that has a hepatoprotective effect. We investigated the regenerative effects of geraniol in rats after a 70% partial hepatectomy (PH). Using Wistar albino rats, nine groups were created: Group I was the control group, while the remaining groups received a single intraperitoneal dose of saline, Silymarin, or geraniol after PH. A 70% PH was performed on all groups except for groups II and III. Blood serum samples were obtained for alanine amino transferase (ALT) analysis. Then liver tissues were harvested for histological and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL6) gene expression were examined 24 and 48 h after PH. ALT levels were found to be statistically significantly increased in all PH-treated groups. TNFα and IL6 gene expression levels were elevated in geraniol-treated groups. Histological evaluation revealed a hepatoprotective effect for geraniol-treated groups. Our results suggest that geraniol plays a significant role during liver regeneration, which involves the elevated expression of TNFα and IL6 48 h after PH.
Article Published Date : Feb 28, 2017
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Substances : Milk Thistle : CK(284) : AC(66)
Diseases : Liver Damage : CK(877) : AC(329)
Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants : CK(8430) : AC(3132), Interleukin-6 Downregulation : CK(1137) : AC(354), Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Alpha Inhibitor : CK(1823) : AC(669)
Additional Keywords : Liver Regeneration : CK(16) : AC(7)

Medical mushrooms and phytochemicals represent useful approaches to target tissue invasion and metastasis as well as other hallmark areas of cancer.
Abstract Title:
Tissue invasion and metastasis: Molecular, biological and clinical perspectives.
Abstract Source:
Semin Cancer Biol. 2015 Apr 9. Epub 2015 Apr 9. PMID: 25865774
Abstract Author(s):
W G Jiang, A J Sanders, M Katoh, H Ungefroren, F Gieseler, M Prince, S K Thompson, M Zollo, D Spano, P Dhawan, D Sliva, P R Subbarayan, M Sarkar, K Honoki, H Fujii, A G Georgakilas, A Amedei, E Niccolai, A Amin, S S Ashraf, L Ye, W G Helferich, X Yang, C S Boosani, G Guha, M R Ciriolo, K Aquilano, S Chen, A S Azmi, W N Keith, A Bilsland, D Bhakta, D Halicka, S Nowsheen, F Pantano, D Santini
Article Affiliation:
W G Jiang
Cancer is a key health issue across the world, causing substantial patient morbidity and mortality. Patient prognosis is tightly linked with metastatic dissemination of the disease to distant sites, with metastatic diseases accounting for a vast percentage of cancer patient mortality. While advances in this area have been made, the process of cancer metastasis and the factors governing cancer spread and establishment at secondary locations is still poorly understood. The current article summarizes recent progress in this area of research, both in the understanding of the underlying biological processes and in the therapeutic strategies for the management of metastasis. This review lists the disruption of E-cadherin and tight junctions, key signaling pathways, including urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene (PI3K/AKT), focal adhesion kinase (FAK),β-catenin/zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB-1) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), together with inactivation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and suppression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity as key targets and the use of phytochemicals, or natural products, such as those from Agaricus blazei, Albatrellus confluens, Cordyceps militaris, Ganoderma lucidum, Poria cocos and Silybum marianum, together with diet derived fatty acids gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and inhibitory compounds as useful approaches to target tissue invasion and metastasis as well as other hallmark areas of cancer. Together, these strategies could represent new, inexpensive, low toxicity strategies to aid in the management of cancer metastasis as well as having holistic effects against other cancer hallmarks.
Article Published Date : Apr 08, 2015
Study Type : Review
Additional Links
Substances : Agaricus Blazei : CK(43) : AC(12), Cordyceps Militaris : CK(39) : AC(24), Medicinal Mushrooms : CK(992) : AC(437), Milk Thistle : CK(284) : AC(66), Poria cocos : CK(5) : AC(4), Reishi Mushroom : CK(228) : AC(110)
Diseases : Cancer Metastasis : CK(442) : AC(206), Cancers: All : CK(14773) : AC(4596)
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-metastatic : CK(634) : AC(414), Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) inhibitor : CK(212) : AC(128)

Expanded regions of the spectra (5.50-6.20 ppm) measured for extracts prepared from eight samples of Silybum marianum 

Milk Thistle/ Silybum marianum
Milk Thistle/ Silybum marianum

PubMed comprises more than 28 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books.
In PubMed
There are 874 on Milk Thistle .
There are 1100 on Silybum marianum 

65 Diseases Researched for Milk Thistle/Silybum M.
Hepatitis C862
Oxidative Stress720
Prostate: PSA Doubling220
Prostate Cancer415
Liver Cancer313
Diabetes Mellitus: Type 2212
C-Reactive Protein110
Colorectal Cancer110
Diabetes: Oxidative Stress110
Hepatitis: Acute110
Liver Cirrhosis: Alcoholic110
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder110
Osteoarthritis: Knee110
Prostatic Hyperplasia110
Alcoholic Liver Disease24
Radiation Induced Illness24
Skin Cancer24
Androgen-Induced Diseases12
Burns: Severe12
Cancers: All22
Chemically-Induced Liver Damage12
Chemotherapy-Induced Toxicity: Cisplatin12
Chemotherapy-Induced Toxicity: Doxorubicin12
Colon Cancer: Prevention12
Cortisol: High12
DNA damage12
Dermatitis: Atopic12
Diabetic Neuropathies12
Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy12
Estrogen-Induced Cholestasis12
Heart Failure12
Hypertension: Pulmonary12
Kidney Damage: Chemically-Induced12
Lactation Disorders12
Lead Poisoning12
Liver Fibrosis12
Petroleum Exposure And Toxicity12
Steroid-Induced Toxicity: Androgenic-Anabolic steroids12
Tuberculosis Drug Induced Toxicity12
Alzheimer's Disease11
Cancer Metastasis11
Colon Cancer11
Cooley's Anemia11
Fatty Liver11
High Sugar Diet11
Insulin Resistance11
Intima Media Thickening11
Iron Overload11
Iron Poisoning11
Leukemia: Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)11
Liver Cirrhosis11
Liver Disease11
Oral Cancer11
Promyelocytic leukemia11

43 Pharmacological Actions Researched for Milk Thistle/Silybum M.
Superoxide Dismutase Up-regulation627
Cell cycle arrest514
Anticarcinogenic Agents212
Insulin-Like Growth Factor Inhibition/Downregulation212
Catalase Up-Regulation211
Anti-Inflammatory Agents110
Antiviral Agents110
Hypoglycemic Agents110
Interleukin-1 alpha downregulation110
Interleukin-8 downregulation110
Iron Chelating Agents110
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Alpha Inhibitor35
Enzyme Inhibitors34
Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 Upregulation24
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Inhibitor24
Chemoprotective Agents12
Gluconeogenesis Inhibitor12
Malondialdehyde Down-regulation12
NF-kappa-B-inducing kinase (NIK) modulator12
NF-kappaB Inhibitor12
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators12
Selective estrogen enzyme modulator (SEEM)12
Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Inhibitor12
Cardiovascular Agents11
Interleukin-2 Downregulation11
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) inhibitor11
Telomerase Inhibitor11

Chemotaxonomic and biosynthetic relationships between flavonolignans produced by Silybum marianum populations. 

Novelty Detection Classifiers in Weed Mapping: Silybum marianum Detection on UAV Multispectral Images. Silybum marianum coverage based on four novelty classifiers prediction in the study area (a); and in the focus area (b) S. marianum is green colour and other vegetation is yellow

Assessment of the Antioxidant Activity of Silybum marianum Seed Extract and Its Protective Effect against DNA Oxidation, Protein Damage and Lipid Peroxidation. 

You will find much more in the following links on the Milk Thistle - Silybum M :

Silybum marianum - Mariatistel -  Marie-tidsel -  Milk thistle
Silybum marianum - Mariatistel - Marie-tidsel - Milk thistle

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