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Research & Studies 


There are 115 good studies at Lycopene. Here's a selection:
Abstracts with Lycopene Research

Higher lycopene exposure is inversely associated with a lower risk of CVD.

Abstract Title:
Lycopene and risk of cardiovascular diseases: A meta-analysis of observational studies.
Abstract Source:
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Mar 20. Epub 2017 Mar 20. PMID: 28318092
Abstract Author(s):
Bo Song, Kai Liu, Yuan Gao, Lu Zhao, Hui Fang, Yusheng Li, Lulu Pei, Yuming Xu
Article Affiliation:
Bo Song
SCOPE: The aim of current meta-analysis was to investigate the relation between lycopene and risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD).
METHODS AND RESULTS: Studies concerning about the association between lycopene and risk of CVD were searched on Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science from inception to October 2016. A total of 14 eligible studies were identified. A significantly inverse association with a pooled risk ratio (RR) of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.76-0.90) was shown between lycopene exposure and risk of CVD. Findings were similar restricting to dietary studies (RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.79-0.96) and biomarker studies (RR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0. 62-0.87).Dietary lycopene intake was statistically significant for coronary heart disease (CHD) (RR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76-0.98) and stroke (RR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.69-0.96).The pooled risk estimate was generally similar for lycopene biomarker concentrations, but the association was only statistically significant for stroke (RR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.42-0.87). Subgroup analyses showed that retrospective and low quality studies were statistically significant sources of heterogeneity.
CONCLUSION: Higher lycopene exposure is inversely associated with a lower risk of CVD. Further well-designed randomized clinical trials are required to assess the role of lycopene on CVD.
Article Published Date : Mar 19, 2017
Study Type : Meta Analysis
Additional Links
Substances : Lycopene : CK(494) : AC(108)
Diseases : Cardiovascular Disease: Prevention : CK(3250) : AC(433), Cardiovascular Diseases : CK(7342) : AC(916)
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction : CK(6417) : AC(686)

Tomato products and lycopene supplementation have positive effects on blood lipids, blood pressure and endothelial function.

Abstract Title:
Tomato and lycopene supplementation and cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract Source:
Atherosclerosis. 2017 Jan 13 ;257:100-108. Epub 2017 Jan 13. PMID: 28129549
Abstract Author(s):
Ho Ming Cheng, Georgios Koutsidis, John K Lodge, Ammar Ashor, Mario Siervo, José Lara
Article Affiliation:
Ho Ming Cheng
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epidemiological evidence suggests an association between consumption of tomato products or lycopene and lower risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Our aim was to evaluate the state of the evidence from intervention trials on the effect of consuming tomato products and lycopene on markers of cardiovascular (CV) function. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of supplementing tomato and lycopene on CV risk factors.
METHODS: Three databases including Medline, Web of science, and Scopus were searched from inception to August 2016. Inclusion criteria were: intervention trials reporting effects of tomato products and lycopene supplementation on CV risk factors among adult subjects>18 years of age. The outcomes of interest included blood lipids (total-, HDL-, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, oxidised-LDL), endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation (FMD), pulse wave velocity (PWV)) and blood pressure (BP) inflammatory factors (CRP, IL-6) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1). Random-effects models were used to determine the pooled effect sizes.
RESULTS: Out of 1189 publications identified, 21 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were meta-analysed. Overall, interventions supplementing tomato were associated with significant reductions in LDL-cholesterol (-0.22 mmol/L; p = 0.006), IL-6 (standardised mean difference -0.25; p = 0.03), and improvements in FMD (2.53%; p = 0.01); while lycopene supplementation reduced systolic-BP (-5.66 mmHg; p = 0.002). No other outcome was significantly affected by these interventions.
CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence on the effects of tomato products and lycopene supplementation on CV risk factors supports the view that increasing the intake of these has positive effects on blood lipids, blood pressure and endothelial function. These results support the development of promising individualised nutritional strategies involving tomatoes to tackle CVD.
Article Published Date : Jan 12, 2017
Study Type : Meta Analysis, Review
Additional Links
Substances : Lycopene : CK(494) : AC(108), Tomato : CK(749) : AC(148)
Diseases : Cardiovascular Diseases : CK(7342) : AC(916)
Pharmacological Actions : Anticholesteremic Agents : CK(1459) : AC(264), Antihypertensive Agents : CK(1178) : AC(164), Interleukin-6 Downregulation : CK(1137) : AC(354)
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction : CK(6417) : AC(686)

Higher serum lycopene concentration has a significant association with the reduced risk of mortality among individuals with metabolic syndrome.
Abstract Title:
Higher levels of serum lycopene are associated with reduced mortality in individuals with metabolic syndrome.
Abstract Source:
Nutr Res. 2016 May ;36(5):402-7. Epub 2016 Jan 9. PMID: 27101758
Abstract Author(s):
Guang-Ming Han, Jane L Meza, Ghada A Soliman, K M Monirul Islam, Shinobu Watanabe-Galloway
Article Affiliation:
Guang-Ming Han
Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of mortality. Increased oxidative stress and inflammation may play an important role in the high mortality of individuals with metabolic syndrome. Previous studies have suggested that lycopene intake might be related to the reduced oxidative stress and decreased inflammation. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined the hypothesis that lycopene is associated with mortality among individuals with metabolic syndrome. A total of 2499 participants 20 years and older with metabolic syndrome were divided into 3 groups based on their serum concentration of lycopene using the tertile rank method. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from years 2001 to 2006 was linked to the mortality file for mortality follow-up data through December 31, 2011, to determine the mortality rate and hazard ratios (HR) for the 3 serum lycopene concentration groups. The mean survival time was significantly higher in the group with the highest serum lycopene concentration (120.6 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 118.8-122.3) and the medium group (116.3 months; 95% CI, 115.2-117.4), compared with the group with lowest serum lycopene concentration (107.4 months; 95% CI, 106.5-108.3). After adjusting for possible confounding factors, participants in the highest (HR, 0.61; P = .0113) and in the second highest (HR, 0.67; P = .0497) serum lycopene concentration groups showed significantly lower HRs of mortality when compared with participants in the lower serum lycopene concentration. The data suggest that higher serum lycopene concentration has a significant association with the reduced risk of mortality among individuals with metabolic syndrome.
Article Published Date : Apr 30, 2016
Study Type : Human Study
Additional Links
Substances : Lycopene : CK(494) : AC(108)
Diseases : Metabolic Syndrome X : CK(916) : AC(158)
Additional Keywords : Mortality : CK(62) : AC(6)

This study provides the first evidence that lycopene inhibits cholesterol absorption in the intestinal cells.​​​​​​​
Abstract Title:
Lycopene reduces cholesterol absorption through the downregulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 in Caco-2 cells.
Abstract Source:
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 Aug 12. Epub 2015 Aug 12. PMID: 26264562
Abstract Author(s):
Jun Zou, Dan Feng
Article Affiliation:
Jun Zou
SCOPE: Elevated blood cholesterol is an important risk factor associated with atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Tomato lycopene has been found to have a hypocholesterolemic effect, and the effect was considered to be related to inhibition of cholesterol synthesis. However, since plasma cholesterol levels are also influenced by the absorption of cholesterol in the gut, the present study is to investigate whether lycopene affects cholesterol absorption in the intestinal Caco-2 cells.
METHODS AND RESULTS: The Caco-2 cells were pretreated with lycopene at different concentrations for 24 h and then incubated with radioactive micellar cholesterol for 2 h. The absorption of radioactive cholesterol was quantified by liquid scintillation. The expression of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and liver X receptorα (LXRα) was analyzed by Western blot and qPCR. We found that lycopene dose dependently inhibited cholesterol absorption and the expression of NPC1L1 protein and NPC1L1 mRNA. The inhibitory effects of lycopene on cholesterol absorption and NPC1L1 expression could be prevented by blockade of the LXRα pathway.
CONCLUSION: This study provides the first evidence that lycopene inhibits cholesterol absorption in the intestinal cells and this inhibitory effect of lycopene is mediated, at least in part, by LXRα-NPC1L1 signaling pathway.
Article Published Date : Aug 11, 2015
Study Type : Human In Vitro
Additional Links
Substances : Lycopene : CK(494) : AC(108)
Diseases : High Cholesterol : CK(1774) : AC(271)
Pharmacological Actions : Anticholesteremic Agents : CK(1459) : AC(264)
Additional Keywords : Dose Response : CK(1519) : AC(574)

The combination of serenoa repens, selenium, lycopene and bromelain are beneficial in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis.​​​​​​​
Abstract Title:
Serenoa repens associated with selenium and lycopene extract and bromelain and methylsulfonylmethane extract are able to improve the efficacy of levofloxacin in chronic bacterial prostatitis patients.
Abstract Source:
Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2016 Oct 5 ;88(3):177-182. Epub 2016 Oct 5. PMID: 27711089
Abstract Author(s):
Tommaso Cai, Daniele Tiscione, Luca Gallelli, Paolo Verze, Alessandro Palmieri, Vincenzo Mirone, Riccardo Bartoletti, Gianni Malossini
Article Affiliation:
Tommaso Cai
OBJECTIVE: To date, the management of patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is not satisfactory, especially in terms of symptoms relief. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and the safety of a combination of serenoa repens, selenium and lycopene extract + bromelain and methylsulfonylmethane extract associated with levofloxacin in patients with CBP.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with clinical and instrumental diagnosis of CBP, admitted to a single Urological Institution from March to June 2015 were enrolled in this phase III study. All enrolled patients were randomized into two groups: Group A received levofloxacin 500 mg o.d. for 14 days associated with lycopene and methylsulfonylmethane; Group B received levofloxacin (500 mg o.d. for 14 days) only. Clinical and microbiological analyses were carried out at the time of admission (T0) and during the followups at 1 month (T1) and 6 months (T2) from the end of the treatment. NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (CPSI), International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS) and Quality of Well-Being (QoL) questionnaires were used. The main outcome measures were the rate of microbiological cure and the improvement in questionnaire results from baseline at the end of the follow-ups period.
RESULTS: Forty patients were enrolled in Group A and 39 in Group B. During the follow-up (T1), we recorded a significant changes in terms of NIH-CPSI and IPSS in Group A (mean difference: 17.6± 2.65; 12.2 ± 2.33; p< 0.01; p< 0.05, respectively) and versus Group B at the intergroup analysis (mean difference: -9± 1.82; -8.33 ± 1.71; p< 0.05; p< 0.05, respectively). No differences were reported in terms of microbiological findings between the two groups. At the second follow-up visit (T2), questionnaire results demonstrated statistically significant differences between groups (p< 0.001). One patient in Group A (2.5%) and 7 patients (17.9%) in Group B showed a symptomatic and microbiological recurrence (p = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of serenoa repens, selenium, lycopene + bromelain and methylsulfonylmethane extracts improved the clinical efficacy of levofloxacin in patients affected by CBP without the development of side effects.
Article Published Date : Oct 04, 2016
Study Type : Human Study
Additional Links
Substances : Bromelain : CK(151) : AC(46), Lycopene : CK(494) : AC(108), Saw Palmetto : CK(152) : AC(23), Selenium : CK(937) : AC(167)
Diseases : Prostatitis: Bacterial : CK(10) : AC(1)
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Bacterial Agents : CK(1367) : AC(475)
Additional Keywords : Natural Substance/Drug Synergy : CK(352) : AC(142), Plant Extracts : CK(7645) : AC(2539)

Lycopene could protect mitochondria against Aβ-induced damage.
Abstract Title:
Lycopene Prevents Amyloid [Beta]-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunctions in Cultured Rat Cortical Neurons.
Abstract Source:
Neurochem Res. 2016 Jan 27. Epub 2016 Jan 27. PMID: 26816095
Abstract Author(s):
Mingyue Qu, Zheng Jiang, Yuanxiang Liao, Zhenyao Song, Xinzhong Nan
Article Affiliation:
Mingyue Qu
Brains affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) show a large spectrum of mitochondrial alterations at both morphological and genetic level. The causal link betweenβ-amyloid (Aβ) and mitochondrial dysfunction has been established in cellular models of AD. We observed previously that lycopene, a member of the carotenoid family of phytochemicals, could counteract neuronal apoptosis and cell damage induced by Aβ and other neurotoxic substances, and that this neuroprotective action somehow involved the mitochondria. The present study aims to investigate the effects of lycopene on mitochondria in cultured rat cortical neurons exposed to Aβ. It was found that lycopene attenuated Aβ-induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by the decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondria-derived superoxide production. Additionally, lycopene ameliorated Aβ-induced mitochondrial morphological alteration, opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pores and the consequent cytochrome c release. Lycopene also improved mitochondrial complex activities and restored ATP levels in Aβ-treated neuron. Furthermore, lycopene prevented mitochondrial DNA damages and improved the protein level of mitochondrial transcription factor A in mitochondria. Those results indicate that lycopene protects mitochondria against Aβ-induced damages, at least in part by inhibiting mitochondrial oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function. These beneficial effects of lycopene may account for its protection against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity.
Article Published Date : Jan 26, 2016
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Substances : Lycopene : CK(494) : AC(108)
Diseases : Alzheimer's Disease : CK(1292) : AC(382), Oxidative Stress : CK(3871) : AC(1382)
Pharmacological Actions : Neuroprotective Agents : CK(2360) : AC(1099)

Lycopene Deficiency in Ageing and Cardiovascular Disease. Bioavailability of lycopene and other carotenoids is poorly understood and studied. It has been shown recently that structural localization of lycopene in the chloroplasts of fruit and vegetables is an important factor limiting bioavailability of lycopene from dietary sources since chloroplasts have high resistance to gastric and intestinal digestion []. Thus, food matrix structure predetermines significantly the bioavailability of lycopene. A significant portion of dietary lycopene is excreted from the human body in undigested form and there is no immediate absorption peak in plasma lycopene level after a single tomato meal. However, there is a clear cumulative lycopene absorption spike in the plasma of volunteers after a 5-day ingestion period of lycopene-containing products []. As shown in , the ingested portion of lycopene released from the food matrix becomes solubilized and emulsified inside the intestinal lumen and is transported with scavenger receptor class B type 1 protein (SR-B1) via the epithelium of small intestine []. Lycopene distribution among tissues is very selective. The testes, adrenals, liver, and prostate have the highest lycopene concentration, while other organs are known to have much lower lycopene content []. Plasma lipoproteins are major delivery vehicles of carotenoids and lycopene in the human body

Tomato - Lycopene
Tomato - Lycopene

PubMed comprises more than 28 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books.
In PubMed
There are 21867 on Tomato.
There are 6801 on Lycopene. 

98 Diseases Researched for Lycopene.
Prostate Cancer1397
Cardiovascular Diseases341
Liver Cancer1033
Breast Cancer827
Oxidative Stress924
Cardiovascular Disease: Prevention120
Gastric Cancer: Prevention120
Human Papillomavirus (HPV)212
Prostate Cancer: Prevention212
Prostatic Hyperplasia: Benign212
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms212
Periodontal Diseases211
Asthma: Bronchial110
Breast Cancer: Prevention110
Cholesterol: Oxidation110
Endometrial Cancer110
Infertility: Male110
Menopausal Syndrome110
Metabolic Syndrome X110
Pancreatic Cancer110
Prostate: PSA Doubling110
Prostatitis: Bacterial110
Vitamin A Deficiency110
Alzheimer's Disease36
Lipid Peroxidation36
High Cholesterol15
Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Toxicity24
Cancer Metastasis34
Chemotherapy-Induced Toxicity: Gentamicin24
Drug-Induced Toxicity: Methotrexate24
High Fat Diet24
Liver Damage: Drug-Induced24
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)24
Cancers: Multi-Drug Resistant23
Colorectal Cancer33
Diabetes Mellitus: Type 123
Diabetes Mellitus: Type 223
Lung Cancer: Metastatic23
Advanced Glycation End products (AGE)12
Atopic Dermatitis12
Bladder Outlet Obstruction12
C-Reactive Protein12
Cancers: All22
Chemotherapy and Radiation Toxicity12
Chemotherapy-Induced Toxicity: Cyclophosphamide12
Chemotherapy-Induced Toxicity: Cisplatin12
Chemotherapy-Induced Toxicity: Kidney12
Diabetic Nephropathy12
Fatty Liver12
Fluoride Toxicity12
Fulminant Hepatic Failure12
Head and Neck Cancer12
Insulin Resistance12
Kidney Damage12
Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Toxicity12
Lung Cancer22
Metabolic Diseases12
Myocardial Infarction12
Myocardial Ischemia12
Pesticide Toxicity12
Prostatitis: Chronic12
Spinal Cord Injuries12
Tobacco Toxicity12
Cancer Stem Cells11
Candida Infection11
Cervical Cancer11
Colon Cancer11
DNA damage11
Diabetic Complications11
Gastric Cancer11
Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Toxicity11
Liver Cancer: Prevention11
Liver Cirrhosis11
Lung Cancer: Prevention11
Mitochondrial Dysfunction11
Oral Cancer11
Radiation Induced Illness11
Rhinovirus Infection11

47 Pharmacological Actions Researched for Lycopene.
Anticarcinogenic Agents1739
Anti-Inflammatory Agents1535
Interleukin-6 Downregulation331
Anticholesteremic Agents327
Cell cycle arrest625
Antihypertensive Agents120
Antineoplastic Agents211
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) inhibitor611
Neuroprotective Agents611
Anti-Bacterial Agents110
Superoxide Dismutase Up-regulation36
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Alpha Inhibitor46
Interleukin-1 beta downregulation35
NF-kappaB Inhibitor35
Chemoprotective Agents24
Angiogenesis Inhibitors12
Anti-Allergic Agents12
Anti-Glycation Agents12
Anti-Ulcer Agents12
Catalase Up-Regulation12
Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) inhibitor12
Insulin Sensitizers12
Malondialdehyde Down-regulation12
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) inhibitor12
Nrf2 activation22
STAT3 Inhibitor12
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Inhibitor12
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibitors12
Bcl-2 protein down-regulation11
Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors11
Heme oxygenase-1 up-regulation11
P-glycoprotein Inhibitors11
Phase II Detoxification Enzyme Inducer11
Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 Upregulation11

Sulforaphane supplementation normalize endothelial dysfunction associated with type 2 diabetes.
Abstract Title:
The Sulforaphane and pyridoxamine supplementation normalize endothelial dysfunction associated with type 2 diabetes.
Abstract Source:
Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 30 ;7(1):14357. Epub 2017 Oct 30. PMID: 29085055
Abstract Author(s):
Ana Pereira, Rosa Fernandes, Joana Crisóstomo, Raquel M Seiça, Cristina M Sena
Article Affiliation:
Ana Pereira
In this study we investigate pyridoxamine (PM) and/or sulforaphane (SFN) as therapeutic interventions to determine whether activators of NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) can be used in addition with inhibitors of advanced glycation end products (AGE) formation to attenuate oxidative stress and improve endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Goto-kakizaki (GK) rats, an animal model of non-obese type 2 diabetes, were treated with or without PM and/or SFN during 8 weeks and compared with age-matched Wistar rats. At the end of the treatment, nitric oxide (NO)-dependent and independent vasorelaxation in isolated aorta and mesenteric arteries were evaluated. Metabolic profile, NO bioavailability and vascular oxidative stress, AGE and Nrf2 levels were also assessed.Diabetic GK rats presented significantly lower levels of Nrf2 and concomitantly exhibited higher levels of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. PM and SFN as monotherapy were capable of significantly improving endothelial dysfunction in aorta and mesenteric arteries decreasing vascular oxidative damage, AGE and HbA1c levels. Furthermore, SFN + PM proved more effective reducing systemic free fatty acids levels, normalizing endothelial function, NO bioavailability and glycation in GK rats. Activators of Nrf2 can be used therapeutically in association with inhibitors of AGE and cross-linking formation to normalize endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.
Article Published Date : Oct 29, 2017
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Substances : Sulforaphane : CK(624) : AC(303)
Diseases : Diabetes Mellitus: Type 2 : CK(3572) : AC(624), Endothelial Dysfunction : CK(1210) : AC(237)
Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants : CK(8430) : AC(3132), Nrf2 activation : CK(177) : AC(86)

Lycopene reduces ovarian tumor growth and intraperitoneal metastatic load.
Lycopene reduces ovarian tumor growth and intraperitoneal metastatic load.
Tobacco carcinogen (NNK) induces both lung cancer and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinomas in ferrets which can be attenuated by lycopene supplementation.
Tobacco carcinogen (NNK) induces both lung cancer and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinomas in ferrets which can be attenuated by lycopene supplementation.

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